TABLE OF RANKS OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
from the article byTrambitsky
(Central State Military Historical Archive)
On January,24, 1722 Peter I retified "The Law About the State Service Order In The Russian Empire" (ranks by seniority and promotion succession), or "Table of Ranks" The base of this law was a numer of similar laws in some European countries, especially in Denmark and Prussia.
All ranks in "The Table of Ranks" were of three types: military, civilian and court ones and were subdivided into XIV classes. (The first class was the highest and fourteenth one - the lowest).
Military ranks were higher than civilian and even court ones. This seniority gave advantage for military ranks in the main goal - transferring to nobility. And even XIV class of "The Table" ("Praporshik" - ensign) gave the right of the hereditary nobiliary rank (in civilian service the hereditary nobiliary rank was given only from 8 class, and 14 class gave only the right of personal nobility).
Below you can see the main tables dealing with Guards, Army, Cossacks and Navy. As you see in the table 'The Table of Ranks" was changed several times during almost two centuries as a result of main reforms.
We translated the main part of the rank names into English. When the ranks had some very special Russian pronunciation we spelled it in Russian way and gave the translation (or meaning) in English in brackets.